Prediction of Upstaging in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Based on Mammographic Radiomic Features

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Mammographic radiomic features may help predict occult invasive disease in core-needle biopsy–proven ductal carcinoma in situ.


Improving diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) before surgery is important in choosing optimal patient management strategies. However, patients may harbor occult invasive disease not detected until definitive surgery.


To assess the performance and clinical utility of mammographic radiomic features in the prediction of occult invasive cancer among women diagnosed with DCIS on the basis of core biopsy findings.

Materials and Methods

In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant retrospective study, digital magnification mammographic images were collected from women who underwent breast core-needle biopsy for calcifications that was performed at a single institution between September 2008 and April 2017 and yielded a diagnosis of DCIS. The database query was directed at asymptomatic women with calcifications without a mass, architectural distortion, asymmetric density, or palpable disease. Logistic regression with regularization was used. Differences across training and internal test set by upstaging rate, age, lesion size, and estrogen and progesterone receptor status were assessed by using the Kruskal-Wallis or χ2 test.


The study consisted of 700 women with DCIS (age range, 40–89 years; mean age, 59 years ± 10 [standard deviation]), including 114 with lesions (16.3%) upstaged to invasive cancer at subsequent surgery. The sample was split randomly into 400 women for the training set and 300 for the testing set (mean ages: training set, 59 years ± 10; test set, 59 years ± 10; P = .85). A total of 109 radiomic and four clinical features were extracted. The best model on the test set by using all radiomic and clinical features helped predict upstaging with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.79). For a fixed high sensitivity (90%), the model yielded a specificity of 22%, a negative predictive value of 92%, and an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% CI: 1.8, 3.2). High specificity (90%) corresponded to a sensitivity of 37%, positive predictive value of 41%, and odds ratio of 5.0 (95% CI: 2.8, 9.0).


Machine learning models that use radiomic features applied to mammographic calcifications may help predict upstaging of ductal carcinoma in situ, which can refine clinical decision making and treatment planning.

© RSNA, 2022


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Article History

Received: Mar 1 2021
Revision requested: Apr 23 2021
Revision received: Sept 24 2021
Accepted: Oct 19 2021
Published online: Jan 04 2022
Published in print: Apr 2022