Simultaneous MR/PET Imaging of the Human Brain: Feasibility Study

The purpose of this study was to apply a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–compatible positron emission tomographic (PET) detector technology for simultaneous MR/PET imaging of the human brain and skull base. The PET detector ring consists of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals in combination with avalanche photodiodes (APDs) mounted in a clinical 3-T MR imager with use of the birdcage transmit/receive head coil. Following phantom studies, two patients were simultaneously examined by using fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and MR imaging and spectroscopy. MR/PET data enabled accurate coregistration of morphologic and multifunctional information. Simultaneous MR/PET imaging is feasible in humans, opening up new possibilities for the emerging field of molecular imaging.

© RSNA, 2008

References

  • 1 Beyer T, Townsend DW, Brun T, et al. A combined PET/CT scanner for clinical oncology. J Nucl Med 2000; 41(8): 1369–1379.
  • 2 Goerres GW, von Schulthess GK, Steinert HC. Why most PET of lung and head-and-neck cancer will be PET/CT. J Nucl Med 2004;45(suppl 1):66S–71S.
  • 3 Muller-Horvat C, Radny P, Eigentler TK, et al. Prospective comparison of the impact on treatment decisions of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer 2006;42(3):342–350.
  • 4 Pfannenberg C, Aschoff P, Schanz S, et al. Prospective comparison of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in staging of advanced malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer 2007;43(3):557–564.
  • 5 Pichler BJ, Judenhofer MS, Catana C, et al. Performance test of an LSO-APD detector in a 7-T MRI scanner for simultaneous PET/MRI. J Nucl Med 2006;47(4):639–647.
  • 6 Melcher CL, Schweitzer JS. Cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate: a fast, efficient new scintillator. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 1992;39(4):502–505.
  • 7 Pichler B, Lorenz E, Mirzoyan R, et al. Performance test of a LSO-APD PET module in a 9.4 Tesla magnet. In: Conference Record of the 1998 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1998;1237:–1239.
  • 8 Judenhofer MS, Catana C, Swann BK, et al. PET/MR images acquired with a compact MR-compatible PET detector in a 7-T magnet. Radiology 2007;244(3):807–814.
  • 9 Hoffman EJ, Cutler PD, Digby WM, et al. 3-D phantom to simulate cerebral blood flow and metabolic images for PET. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 1990;37(2):616–620.
  • 10 Schmand M, Wienhard K, Casey ME, et al. Performance evaluation of a new LSO high resolution researchtomograph-HRRT. In: Conference Record of the 1999 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1999;1067:–1071.
  • 11 Comtat C, Bataille F, Michel C, et al. OSEM-3D reconstruction strategies for the ECAT HRRT. In: Conference Record of the 2004 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004;3492:–3496.
  • 12 Byars LG, Sibomana M, Burbar Z. Variance reduction on randoms from delayed coincidence histograms for the HRRT. In: Conference Record of the 2005 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2005;2622:–2626.
  • 13 Watson CC, Casey ME, Michel C, Bendriem B. Advances in scatter correction for 3D PET/CT. In: Conference Record of the 2004 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004;3008:–3012.
  • 14 Vollmar S, Hampl JA, Kracht L, et al. Integration of functional data (PET) into brain surgery planning and neuronavigation. In: Buzug TM, ed. Advances in medical engineering: proceedings in physics 114. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2007;98:–103.
  • 15 Wienhard K, Schmand M, Casey ME, et al. The ECAT HRRT: performance and first clinical application of the new high resolution research tomograph. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 2002;49(1):104–110.
  • 16 Heiss WD, Habedank B, Klein JC, et al. Metabolic rates in small brain nuclei determined by high-resolution PET. J Nucl Med 2004;45(11):1811–1815.
  • 17 Vollmar S, Michel C, Treffert JT, et al. HeinzelCluster: accelerated reconstruction for FORE and OSEM3D. Phys Med Biol 2002;47(15):2651–2658.
  • 18 Hofmann M, Steinke F, Scheel V, et al. MR-based attenuation correction for PET/MR: a novel approach combining pattern recognition and atlas registration. J Nucl Med 2008 [in press].

Article History

Published in print: 2008